In many kung fu styles (and not only) there are particular types of interaction with the body of the adversary named Chin Na, these are fighting techniques (with significant differences between schools / styles / masters) aimed at:
Control / immobilize / force the opponent to surrender
Paralize / hurt / break one or more opponent's bodily elements
In the extreme of cases to take the life of the adversary
The word "Chin Na" or "Qinna" literally means "grasping and holding" and it encloses various categories (according to the styles):
Breathing blocking techniques
Bone breakage / displacement techniques
Techniques for locking / closing of veins / arteries
Techniques for separating muscles / tendons
(relative countermoves and recovery / cure techniques)
Despite the eyes of today's civilized world these practices may seem extreme but, in the past, they were considered compassionate, because in most cases they allow to end a clash (potentially lethal) without committing a murder:
Immobilizing the opponent with the intent of demonstrating overwhelming superiority
Causing slight damage but able to discourage the continuation of the fight
Causing serious damage that makes impossible to continue the fight
In fact the most part of Chin Na can be efficiently performed at multiple levels of incisivity:
From the lowest (for instance in learning / teaching)
Up to the highest (which involves serious injury if not even death)
Behind this millennial knowledge (still widely applied) there is a profound and articulated scientific study of bodily mechanics (double-stranded with traditional chinese medicine).
In the specific context of 6DKF, we will see, with time, several of these techniques (from the simplest / most educational to the most articulated, from the most traditional to the ones born / perfected in our days).
To conclude this introduction it should be emphasized that what is most important in the interiorization of Chin Na is not the application of the individual techniques but the understanding of founding concepts behind them; in the next article and in the following we will look at the basics of this important branch of martial arts.